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Thread: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

  1. #421
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Pavlof Spewing Ash and Lava

    Submitted by Chris Mokaba on Wed, 06/04/2014 - 12:00





    If you go through the data of volcanic eruptions of Pavlof, an Alaskan mountain peak, then you would not be surprised to know that over the last few days, it has witnessed a blast sending ash 22,000 feet up into the air.
    In fact, ash spewing made nearby skies unsafe for air travel. Volcano ash can prove detrimental for aircraft as it not only blocks pilot's visibility, but also can destroy jet engines. On Saturday, Alaska's most active volcano erupted and since then, volcano researchers have been keeping an eye on the volcanic activity.
    Game McGimsey, a staff volcanologist at the Alaska Volcano Observatory, said for now, it is not known as to how much ash has been spewed out of the eruption. But they are sure of one thing that the ash reached quite a distance as its traces appeared 50 miles to the volcano's east post-eruption.
    Cities are safe as no report has come regarding the ash falling upon towns. On Tuesday morning, a 'red' aviation warning level remained in effect but by afternoon officials lowered the level.
    Pavlof, an 8,262-feet-high peak lying 625 miles southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula, has made numerous eruptions over the last 200 years. Last year's blast that took place on May was so severe that it forced regional airlines to cancel flight to many communities falling in the volcano's path, including Cold Bay and King Cove.
    NASA's Landsat satellite even showed lava streaming out of the volcano's peak. "We're getting a lot of pilot reports and a lot of good photos, so we're able to keep a good eye on it", affirmed observatory research geologist Michelle Coombs.
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Libertatem Prius!


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  3. #423
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Something very odd is going on guys.

    I took a look at the quake maps today.

    There are a SHITLOAD of them going on... then I saw this come out.

    7/01/2014 — Bayou Corne sinkhole collapses into AQUIFER – “Active Volcanic + Geothermal”

    01 Tuesday Jul 2014
    Posted by Mary W. in Alerts, Health, Technology, United States, US Oil/Gas, Videos, Water
    Leave a comment

    Tags
    aquifier, Bayou Corne Louisianna, Drinking water, Geologists, geothermal, local wells, Methane Gas, natural gas, oil/petroleum in aquifer, regional water supply, sinkhole, steady inflow, video, Volcanic Eruption

    continually growing Louisiana / Bayou Corne sinkhole.



    Get the word out to the people in the entire area around the sinkhole in Louisiana , this is now a problem for the region, not just the local area around Bayou Corne!
    Watch in HD if possible, and PLEASE LISTEN to the professional recorded at the most recent public meeting.


    The professionals working on the sinkhole have disclosed that the sinkhole has collapsed into the Aquifer. Confirmed a steady flow INTO the collapsed area.
    Needless to say, this may effect local water wells, and regional water supply.


    ____
    Also. Geologists have just published a study, to be released today (July 1, 2014) , which compares the situation at the Bayou Corne sinkhole to a “geothermal (geyser) , explosive, or volcanic” event. Only instead of magma causing the rise (and collapse), it is large volumes of displaced methane gas causing the event to produces earthquakes, and further collapses.


    Here is a link to the full post on the new comparison of the Louisiana sinkhole to a volcanic / geothermal / explosive event:
    http://dutchsinse.tatoott1009.com/701…

    ____
    This video shows the most recent flyover of the Bayou Corne sinkhole, as well as the most recent public briefing on the collapsed salt dome. Included are the depth test video done by Assumption Parish, as well as the collapses caught on video.


    Per the geologist, the floor of the sinkhole has collapsed … quote , “Most likely into the aquifer”.


    The geologist tells the people in attendance that water continually flows IN to the sinkhole. Leading someone to ask “where” is the water flowing to….. if it is steadily coming in to a supposedly closed space.


    Leading the geologist to disclose the space is NOT closed. Now “most likely” (per the professional on the case) has collapsed into the main aquifer for the region.
    The oil, and petroleum products which were stored in the dome had been previously released into the water in the direct area, now it is confirmed as being sucked into the main water supply.


    All flyover videos, and public meetings can be viewed here
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  4. #424
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    I guess I'm not the only one noticing things.

    Earthquakes Galore!!

    Posted on by Juan Roberto Peron
    Tell us something BAD is not happening on Planet Earth……….below is taken from the USGS live earthquake map:

    click on map to enlarge
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  5. #425
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    27 so far today.

    1 Day, Magnitude 2.5+ Worldwide

    27 earthquakes - DownloadUpdated: 2014-07-01 12:05:31 UTC-06:00Showing event times using Local System Time (UTC-06:00)27 earthquakes in map area

    • 5.1 87km WSW of San Antonio, Chile 2014-07-01 08:22:09 UTC-06:00 16.1 km
    • 3.1 21km NNE of Enid, Oklahoma 2014-07-01 08:22:07 UTC-06:00 5.0 km
    • 2.8 26km SW of Medford, Oklahoma 2014-07-01 08:16:58 UTC-06:00 5.0 km
    • 3.6 144km W of Talkeetna, Alaska 2014-07-01 07:37:20 UTC-06:00 12.9 km
    • 5.0 Central Mid-Atlantic Ridge 2014-07-01 06:39:06 UTC-06:00 10.0 km
    • 2.7 53km NNW of Road Town, British Virgin Islands 2014-07-01 05:31:26 UTC-06:00 14.0 km
    • 5.1 89km W of Cabra, Philippines 2014-07-01 03:11:23 UTC-06:00 34.6 km
    • 3.0 52km S of Lone Pine, California 2014-07-01 03:04:43 UTC-06:00 4.1 km
    • 2.9 52km S of Lone Pine, California 2014-07-01 03:04:22 UTC-06:00 2.5 km
    • 4.8 135km ENE of Nago, Japan 2014-07-01 03:00:58 UTC-06:00 26.3 km
    • 3.3 26km SW of Medford, Oklahoma 2014-07-01 02:20:34 UTC-06:00 4.4 km
    • 2.9 8km NW of The Geysers, California 2014-07-01 02:16:33 UTC-06:00 2.4 km
    • 4.8 203km NW of Visokoi Island, 2014-07-01 01:29:42 UTC-06:00 10.0 km
    • 3.6 9km ENE of Noatak, Alaska 2014-07-01 01:12:53 UTC-06:00 11.4 km
    • 2.5 4km WSW of Volcano, Hawaii 2014-07-01 00:14:37 UTC-06:00 1.5 km
    • 2.5 63km N of Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands 2014-07-01 00:11:46 UTC-06:00 32.0 km
    • 3.4 126km SSE of Cold Bay, Alaska 2014-06-30 22:52:13 UTC-06:00 13.2 km
    • 3.4 129km N of San Juan, Puerto Rico 2014-06-30 22:37:49 UTC-06:00 109.0 km
    • 3.2 34km SSW of Ferndale, California 2014-06-30 21:10:49 UTC-06:00 12.5 km
    • 2.5 30km W of Akutan, Alaska 2014-06-30 19:55:22 UTC-06:00 119.1 km
    • 2.9 23km SE of Mammoth Lakes, California 2014-06-30 17:54:47 UTC-06:00 6.4 km
    • 4.9 48km S of Muara Siberut, Indonesia 2014-06-30 15:58:54 UTC-06:00 33.5 km
    • 5.3 99km SSE of Raoul Island, New Zealand 2014-06-30 14:45:34 UTC-06:00 45.1 km
    • 2.6 61km N of Road Town, British Virgin Islands 2014-06-30 14:18:42 UTC-06:00 32.0 km
    • 2.8 23km NW of Sutton-Alpine, Alaska 2014-06-30 14:03:35 UTC-06:00 33.3 km
    • 6.2 Bonin Islands, Japan region 2014-06-30 13:55:32 UTC-06:00 512.4 km
    • 3.3 90km NNW of Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands 2014-06-30 13:09:57 UTC-06:00 100.0 km

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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    18 July 2014 Last updated at 10:41 ET Higher earthquake risk for eastern US

    States in the west are still most affected by seismic activity, but it's increasing in the east
    Continue reading the main story Related Stories



    A new US geological survey indicates that some parts of the US are at an increased risk of earthquakes, especially along the east coast.
    New seismic hazard maps updated for the first time since 2008 show highest risk west but also increased risk east.
    "The eastern US has the potential for larger and more damaging earthquakes than considered in previous maps and assessments," the report states.
    The East Coast experienced one of its largest quakes for 100 years in 2011.
    The 5.8 magnitude quake was centred on rural Virginia but was felt by hundreds of thousands of people, including in Washington DC.
    Parts of states including Alaska, Hawaii, Oregon and California remain at the highest risk of seismic activity.
    Major fault lines exist along the entire US West Coast, as well as in the Midwest near Illinois and Missouri.
    Washington DC was unusually shaken in 2011
    "While all states have some potential for earthquakes, 42 of the 50 states have a reasonable chance of experiencing damaging ground shaking from an earthquake in 50 years," the new report finds.
    "The hazard is especially high along the West Coast, intermountain west, and in several active regions of the central and eastern US."
    The 16 states at highest risk are: Alaska, Arkansas, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
    Meanwhile, several states saw their risk of seismic activity lower, including Texas, Oregon, Utah and New York.
    Earthquakes caused by fracking - utilising a mixture of water, sand and chemicals pumped underground at high pressure to crack open sedimentary rocks and release the fuels within - were not included in the analysis.
    Several hundred earthquakes have hit Oklahoma so far this year, with fracking named a primary culprit, although the impact of fracking on earthquake risks is disputed.
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Scientists Follow Rising Magma Beneath Mount Rainier



    By Jenna Iacurci
    Jul 18, 2014 10:34 AM EDT

    Using a network of extremely sensitive instruments, scientists are painting a more detailed picture of the inner workings of the molten rock deep beneath some of North America's most active and dangerous volcanoes, including Mount Rainier in Washington (pictured). (Photo : Flickr)



    Using a network of extremely sensitive instruments, scientists are painting a more detailed picture of the inner workings of the molten rock deep beneath some of North America's most active and dangerous volcanoes.


    The network, acting like a giant metal detector, has helped geophysicists understand the process that brings magma from 50 miles below the surface to active volcanoes like Mount Rainier in Washington State.


    Such findings could help improve early warnings of possible eruptions, they say.



    Mount Rainier and Mount St. Helens are some of the most dangerous volcanoes among the scores of them located in Washington's Cascade Range, stretching down the West Coast from British Colombia in Canada to Northern California. Mount St. Helens had a deadly eruption in May 1980, killing about 50 people and spreading its ash across 11 states.


    As part of a study published in the journal Nature, scientists presented a detailed picture of the deep underground plumbing below Mount Rainier and followed its rising magma.


    They found that the majority of the volcano's magma forms deep within the Earth's mantle, where it then rises up in a roughly vertical column towards the surface, collecting in a reservoir underneath the volcano's 14,000-foot peak.


    They study helped researchers settle the question of whether the melted magma "goes up through a network of cracks, or whether it gets dragged up in little bits, or rises in diapirs," lead author R. Shane McGary from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute told the Los Angeles Times.


    Diapirs, he explained, are "just like what you would see in a lava lamp: a blob that gets heated up and rises."


    According to the study, Mount Rainier sits atop a massive "chimney" of magma, a configuration unlike other neighboring volcanoes in Oregon. It suggests that even close volcanoes can have different eruption dynamics.


    "I would regard Mount Rainier as a much more serious short-term threat than Mount Jefferson in Oregon, which lacks a flow path," McGary said, however, he does not believe that an eruption is likely in the near future.


    The sensor network beneath Mount Rainier can detect changes in the movement of magma by monitoring fluctuations in magnetic conductivity caused by shifts in underground geological structures, researchers said.


    Given the technique's efficacy, the next step, according the McGary, is to do similar studies at other volcanoes along the West Coast.


    "I would be really interested in seeing what Mount St. Helens looks like using this technique," he added.
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Study: Mount Rainier will erupt again

    Mount Rainier’s magma flows are 36 million years old


    By Ian Lang, Daily Digest News
    Friday, July 18, 2014





    Scientists from the University of Utah have determined that Mount Rainier, one of the most prominent peaks in North America, will erupt again. The question of when remains unanswered, but science has recently discovered how: By measuring how quickly Earth conducts electricity ans seismic waves, they’ve effectively “mapped” Rainier’s magma “plumbing.”


    “This is the most direct image yet capturing the melting process that feeds magma into a crustal reservoir that eventually is tapped for eruptions,” says geophysicist Phil Wannamaker, of the university’s Energy & Geoscience Institute and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. “But it does not provide any information on the timing of future eruptions from Mount Rainier or other Cascade Range volcanoes.”


    The interesting part? Some, if not most, of Rainier’s magma reservoir is located not under the volcano, but somewhere between 6 and 10 miles northwest of it. It’s buried about five miles beneath the surface, and “appears to be 5 to 10 miles thick, and 5 to 10 miles wide in east-west extent,” says Wannamaker. They aren’t sure of the north-south extent, due to the nature of the measurement. In fact, plenty of magma could be sitting beneath Rainier, but the 80 electrical sensors used for the experiment were placed in a 190-mile-long, west-to-east line about 12 miles north of the volcano.


    About 30% of the reservoir is believed to be molten, with the rest in a sponge-like state. The image shows that the reservoir is the result of a seafloor crustal tectonic plate “subducting” under its neighbor to the east. The resulting water and molten rock then makes its way upward, towards Rainier.


    The volcanic flows powering Rainier are about 36 million years old. The U.S. Geological Survey notes that Rainier “is an active volcano that will erupt again.”
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Prediction: 2/3 of U.S. could be devastated

    Yellowstone 'supervolcano' 2,000 times power of Mount St. Helens

    Read more at http://www.wnd.com/2014/07/predictio...H3XeU6uvG1w.99


    Yellowstone volcano kill zone

    Every year, more than 3 million people visit one of America’s most popular tourist attractions, unaware of the tempest that lies just below the surface.

    One sign of the tumult occurred this month when oil bubbled up to the surface, damaging a road in Yellowstone National Park, a result of extreme heat from the thermal activity below.

    “It basically turned the asphalt into soup,” the park spokesman, Dan Hottle, told USA Today. “It turned the gravel road into oatmeal.”



    Old Faithful

    Road problems caused by excessive underground temperatures are common.

    Yellowstone covers nearly 3,500 square miles and contains 10,000 geothermal features, one half of all the known features of that kind in the world. The park also has 300 geysers, the largest concentration in the world. “Old Faithful,” the world’s best known geyser, blasts thousands of gallons of boiling hot water between 100 and 200 feet into the air every 60 to 90 minutes.

    What is driving this geologic wonder?

    Below the park is what geologists call a “supervolcano,” a massive chamber of molten rock, called magma, that packs tremendous energy.

    The Yellowstone Caldera, or cauldron, sits on top of North America’s largest volcanic field. Four hundred miles under the Earth’s surface is a magma ‘hotspot’ that reaches up to just 30 miles below ground level before spreading out over an area of 300 miles across three states.

    Over all this sits the volcano.

    While most scientists believe the probability of a major eruption is very small, there are signs that have some analysts worried, and most agree the volcano holds catastrophic potential. It could blast 240 cubic miles of ash, rocks and lava into the atmosphere, rendering about two-thirds of the nation immediately uninhabitable, according to some estimates, and plunge the world into a “nuclear winter.”
    Meanwhile, Geologists have recently discovered that the Yellowstone supervolcano is twice as big as previously thought.

    To put it in perspective, the Mount St. Helens volcanic explosion would be miniscule in comparison to an explosion at Yellowstone, which could pack 2,000 times the power, according to geologists.


    An earthquake May 18, 1980, caused the eruption of Mount St. Helens, sending a column of ejecta more than 80,000 feet into the atmosphere.

    The blast was so sudden that all the water in nearby Spirit Lake was temporarily displaced and the subsequent landslide sent 600-foot waves crashing into the ridge north of the lake, adding almost 300 feet of debris onto lakebed. Like an inland tsunami, when the water moved back into Spirit Lake, it carried with it thousands of trees blown over by the blast and raised the level of the lake 200 feet.

    Hundreds of square miles were reduced to wasteland, causing more than $1 billion in damage, about $2.88 billion in 2014 dollars.

    ‘Living, breathing’
    University of Utah Geophysicist Robert Smith first called Yellowstone a “living breathing caldera” in 1979. He now heads the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory at the University of Utah.

    “Our best evidence is that the crustal magma chamber is filling with molten rock, but we have no idea how long this process goes on before there either is an eruption or the inflow of molten rock stops and the caldera deflates again,” he said.

    Smith insists that even though the volcanic formation is massive, there is absolutely no need to panic.

    “We create scenarios. We know roughly what to expect of the patterns of time and space of the earthquakes ground information. Again, acquired from other experiences around the world, we use that to interpret our own data in terms of what the potential threat or risk might be,” he said.


    Map of Yellowstone caldera

    Smith has said that he doesn’t even like the term “supervolcano.”

    “I prefer to use the term “hotspot,” because it reflects a zone of concentrated and active volcanism.”

    According to the USGS website:

    Although it is possible, scientists are not convinced that there will ever be another catastrophic eruption at Yellowstone.

    Given Yellowstone’s past history, the yearly probability of another caldera-forming eruption could be calculated as 1 in 730,000 or 0.00014 %. However, this number is based simply on averaging the two intervals between the three major past eruptions at Yellowstone – this is hardly enough to make a critical judgment. This probability is roughly similar to that of a large (1 kilometer) asteroid hitting the Earth. Moreover, catastrophic geologic events are neither regular nor predictable.

    As even the USGS alluded, there may be no warning of an eruption of the supervolcano. Scientists at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF, in Grenoble, France, concluded that supervolcanos can erupt without earthquakes or any other warnings. The sheer pressure of lava in the dome, they say, can cause an eruption without any earthquakes beforehand.






    Diagram of underground volcano at Yellowstone

    High impact, now probability

    Smith and Jamie Farrell, also of the University of Utah, believe that Yellowstone erupting is a high-impact but low-probability scenario.
    However, there have been signs that the magma beneath the surface has become more active than it has been before.

    The supervolcano underneath Yellowstone has been rising at a record rate since 2004. Its floor has gone up three inches per year for the last three years alone, the fastest rate since records began in 1923.

    Smith told National Geographic: “It’s an extraordinary uplift, because it covers such a large area and the rates are so high”.

    Geologists call Yellowstone “their laboratory” and are constantly monitoring the thermal and seismic activity below the park’s surface.
    Hawaii and Iceland are other examples of geologic hot spots, but Yellowstone is the only hot spot located underneath land rather than sea, which has made it easier to study.

    Smith and his team have set up a series of sensors around the park so that they can closely monitor the volcano’s vital signs. They measure ground movement and record the frequent earthquakes that occur in the area. Their research has uncovered amazing facts about the activity below.

    Less than five miles below the surface is a shallow reservoir of solid rock and magma. Below this is a much larger 13.5 cubic mile plume of magma, the engine that fuels the thermal pools and geysers in Yellowstone.



    Prismatic pool at Yellowstone

    While Smith insists there is no need to panic, not all scientists are in agreement.

    Worrisome signs

    It is the rising of the volcano floor that has some scientists worried. They believe that an eruption is closer than what some of the experts say.

    A team of researchers with the U.S. Geological Survey has also found that a large amount of ancient helium is constantly being released in Yellowstone National Park, the result, they suggest in their paper published in the journal Nature, of a magma hot spot releasing previously trapped gasses.

    These helium isotopes, helium-3/helium-4, are critical tracers in the Earth sciences, where they are used to trace the activity of the Earth’s mantle. Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio and is commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. An increase in the presence of these isotopes is also cited as preceding increased volcanic activity.

    In one instance, the underwater volcano El Hierro, near the smallest of Spain’s Canary Islands, showed increased volcanic activity over the course of seven months in 2011 and 2012. The helium-4 filtrated up through the island’s soil and groundwater. Eventually, a spectacular plume appeared off the southern coast of the island, a sign that the El Hierro volcano had finally erupted.

    The team’s analyses show that as the El Hierro volcano became more active, the crust fractured and helium, mostly from the mantle, flowed to the surface. As the actual eruption began, gas flow at the surface increased dramatically, and gas pressure beneath the island dropped. As seismic activity at El Hierro picked up again, the crust fractured and helium-4 became a larger component of the total helium released on the island.

    The quantity of helium-4 coming off of Yellowstone is hundreds to thousands of times greater than it should be – a sign that there is a marked increase in volcanic activity in the area. The report shows that by “combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, the crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed by orders of magnitude any conceivable rate of generation within the crust.”



    Magma under Yellowstone

    This is activity that has not been seen before in the lifetime of anyone alive today.

    Just what would a Yellowstone eruption look like? Smith’s team has developed several scenarios, and every one of them is bleak.

    Complete and incomprehensible devastation

    According to Smith, in his book “Windows into the Earth,” the “devastation would be complete and incomprehensible.”

    “Before the super eruption, large earthquakes would likely swarm the surrounding areas until the huge blast that would erase Yellowstone completely off the map.”

    Farrell said it would be a “global event.”

    “There would be a lot of destruction and a lot of impacts around the globe,” he said.

    Most scientists agree that when the Yellowstone volcano does erupt, the results will be catastrophic.

    By some estimates, 87,000 people would die immediately.

    Thousands of cubic miles of red-hot volcanic ash would cover the Western United States and shoot into the atmosphere.
    Light from the sun would be blocked, making global temperatures plummet into a prolonged “nuclear winter.”

    The entire grain harvest of the Great Plains would virtually disappear in a matter of hours, since it would be coated in ash, threatening a substantial portion of the world’s food supply.

    If temperatures plummet by the 21 degrees they did after the Toba volcano eruption in Sumatra of ancient times, the Yellowstone supervolcano eruption could truly be an extinction-level event.

    It is estimated that a full-blown eruption of Yellowstone could leave two-thirds of the United States completely uninhabitable.

    Just before the eruption, the pressure underground will build and the magma will rise, forcing its way out of the ground, sending lava and sulfuric acid gas into the air. The blast will also propel ash up to 20 miles into the atmosphere where the easterly jetstream would carry it as far away as Europe in as quickly as three days.

    The gas, the source for acid rain, would remain in the atmosphere for years, screening out sunlight, causing global temperatures to drop and killing crops for years afterward.

    Even a small amount of ash would close airports, cause damage to vehicles and houses, and contaminate water supplies.

    The ash resulting from the 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland caused the largest air traffic shutdown since World War II.

    The book “Supervolcano” includes an in-depth, fictional account of a super eruption.

    According to the book:

    Within days and weeks of the supereruption, the suspension of air routes, the inability to bring cargo in and out of the most deeply affected areas, and the virtual decimation of the Grain Belt, the area of our nation responsible for the vast majority of our grain food sources, all contribute to a growing sense of desperation and panic among survivors anxious to find food.

    It only takes 0.04 inches of ash to close airports, and the wide swath of blanketed ash would literally shut down every major and minor airport for thousands of miles across the country.

    Because even a small amount of ash can clog an engine, road transportation is heavily curtailed, and trucks and machines normally engaged in the moving of supplies from one state to another find themselves immobilized.

    Electrical equipment shorts out, and wide areas experience power outages and rolling blackouts, rendering communication via computers and phones obsolete.

    The book also describes subsequent food riots, contaminated water and an outbreak of violence and anarchy. Although North America would be the hardest hit, the explosion would affect the entire planet.

    ‘$3 trillion damage’

    It is truly a “doomsday” scenario.

    In such a scenario for North America, according to Doug Bausch, a senior scientist at FEMA, $3 trillion in “direct economic damage” is a reasonable estimate.

    It’s about 20 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product.

    Spewing lava far into the sky, a cloud of plant-killing ash would fan out and dump a layer 10 feet deep up to 1,000 miles away.

    Two-thirds of the U.S. could become uninhabitable as toxic air sweeps through it, grounding thousands of flights and forcing millions to leave their homes.

    Smith believes that rather than an eruption, the more immediate threat is earthquakes and smaller eruptions, since the probability of one of those instances occurring is much higher.

    “It’s an extraordinary uplift, because it covers such a large area and the rates are so high. At the beginning, we were concerned it could be leading up to an eruption.”

    Just when and how big is anyone’s guess.

    Michio Kaku, American television personality and theoretical physicist with at the City College of New York, said it best.

    “All you can do is run.”

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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism


    “All you can do is run.”


    I plan to be on a boat, headed for the southern hemisphere. LOL
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Lol!
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Thousands of intense earthquakes rock Iceland

    | August 19, 2014 | Updated: August 19, 2014 10:29am



    • Photo By Anonymous/AP


      FILE This is a Saturday May 8 2010 file image taken from video of a column of ash rising from Iceland's Eyjafjallajokul volcano. It was reported Tueday Aug. 19, 2014 that thousands of small intense earthquakes are rocking Iceland amid concerns that one of the country’s volcanoes may be close to erupting. Iceland has raised its aviation alert level for the risk of a possible volcanic eruption to orange _ the second-most severe level. The alert is worrisome because of the chaos that followed the April 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajokul, when more than 100,000 flights were cancelled because volcanic ash floating in the atmosphere is considered an aviation safety hazard. **







    LONDON (AP) — Thousands of small intense earthquakes are rocking Iceland amid concerns that one of the country's volcanoes may be close to erupting.


    Iceland has raised its aviation alert level for the risk of a possible volcanic eruption to orange — the second-most severe level. The alert is worrisome because of the chaos that followed the April 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajokul, when more than 100,000 flights were cancelled because volcanic ash floating in the atmosphere is considered an aviation safety hazard.


    Some 3,000 earthquakes have taken place since Saturday in Bardarbunga — a subglacial stratovolcano located under Iceland's largest glacier. Iceland's Meteorological Office said that no earthquakes above magnitude 3 have been recorded in the last 24 hours.


    Seismologists said Tuesday magma is moving, but it is traveling horizontally.
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    6.0 earthquake hit Northern California this morning. Looks like some moderate damage.


    Strong California Quake Causes Injuries, Damage

    August 24, 2014

    A large earthquake caused significant damage in California's northern Bay Area early Sunday, sending at least 70 people to a hospital, igniting fires, knocking out power to tens of thousands and sending residents running out of their homes in the darkness.

    Vanessa DeGier, spokeswoman for Queen of the Valley hospital in Napa, says the facility has treated more than 70 people, most for cuts, bumps and bruises. She says the facility has treated a hip fracture and heart attack, but it's unclear if it was related to the 6.0-magnitude earthquake. The hospital has set up a triage tent and many people are still coming in, DeGier said.

    Two major injuries have been reported, and hospitals have been very busy with moderate injuries, Napa Division Fire Chief John Callanan said earlier. The quake caused six significant fires, including at four mobile homes, Napa Division Fire Chief Darren Drake said. The damage from the fires is not yet clear but it appears significant, he said. Several other smaller fires have been reported and firefighting efforts have been complicated by broken water mains.

    The earthquake struck just before 3:30 a.m. about 4 miles northwest of American Canyon, which is about 6 miles southwest of Napa, in California wine country, Leslie Gordon of the U.S. Geological Survey said. It's the largest earthquake to shake the Bay Area since the 6.9-magnitude Loma Prieta quake in 1989, the USGS said. That earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay Area on Oct. 17, 1989 during a World Series game between the San Francisco Giants and the Oakland Athletics, collapsing part of the Bay Bridge roadway and killing more than 60 people, most when an Oakland freeway fell.

    "There's collapses, fires," said Napa Fire Capt. Doug Bridewell, standing in front of large pieces of masonry that broke loose from a turn of the century office building where a fire had just been extinguished. "That's the worst shaking I've ever been in."

    Bridewell, who said he had to climb over fallen furniture in his own home to check on his family before reporting to duty, said he was starting to see more reports of injuries.

    The shaking emptied cabinets in homes and store shelves, set off car alarms and had residents of neighboring Sonoma County running out of their houses and talking about damage inside their homes. Officials say widespread power outages have been reported in the area.

    "It was a rolling quake, said Oakland resident Rich Lieberman. "It started very much like a rolling sensation and just got progressively worse in terms of length. Not so much in terms of shaking, but it did shake. It felt like a side-to-side kind of rolling sensation. Nothing violent but extremely lengthy and extremely active."

    The USGS says the depth of the earthquake was just less than seven miles, and numerous small aftershocks have occurred in the Napa wine country.

    "A quake of that size in a populated area is of course widely felt throughout that region," said Randy Baldwin, a geophysicist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Golden, Colorado. "The 6.0 is a sizeable quake for this area. It's a shallow quake. It's about 6 miles deep. We received hundreds of reports on our website from people that felt it in the surrounding area."

    California Highway Patrol Officer Kevin Bartlett said cracks and damage to pavement closed the westbound Interstate 80 connector to westbound State Route 37 in Vallejo and westbound State Route 37 at the Sonoma off ramp. He says there haven't been reports of injuries or people stranded in their cars, but there are numerous flat tires from motorists driving over damaged roads.

    Highway Patrol and the California Department of Transportation was checking roadways for damage, Bartlett said.

    California Highway Patrol Officer Daniel Hill told KTVU-TV that road damage appears confined to the Napa and Sonoma areas. He said there appears to be no damage to major bridges in the Bay Area.

    In Napa, city spokesman Barry Martin there has been significant damage. Store windows were broken and water mains broke in several location, one of which left at least one street flooded. Power outages left streetlights dark.

    Numerous emergency vehicles were on the roads in Napa and Sonoma counties.

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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    At some point in the future, Babylon by the Bay will be Babylon in the Bay.

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    Earthquake Early-Warning System Gave 10-Second Alert Before Napa Quake Felt

    August 24, 2014


    (Wow, if that guy isn't a sterotypical Californian, I don't know what is! )

    Scientists at UC Berkeley released a video showing an earthquake early-warning system that sent an alert before the magnitude-6.0 Napa earthquake Sunday morning.

    Officials said the system provided an alert 10 seconds before the quake was felt.

    California is working to complete a statewide system, which could be unveiled in the next few years.

    Once fully developed, the system could give downtown Los Angeles 40 to 50 seconds of warning that the “Big One” was headed from the San Andreas fault, giving time for elevators to stop at the next floor and open up, firefighters to open up garage doors, high-speed trains to slow down to avoid derailment and surgeons to take the scalpel out of a patient.

    A lack of funds, however, has slowed the system's progress.

    The system works because while earthquakes travel at the speed of sound, sensors that initially detect the shaking near the epicenter of a quake can send a message faster -- at the speed of light -- to warn residents farther away that the quake is coming.

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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Peru getting in on the recent tectonic action.


    Large 6.9 Earthquake Reported in Central Peru

    August 24, 2014

    A large 6.9-magnitude earthquake has struck a sparsely populated area of central Peru, the U.S. Geological Survey said Sunday.

    There were no immediate reports of damage or injuries, said Mario Casareto, spokesman for Peru's fire agency. He said authorities were still surveying the region, including the Ayacucho area where the quake was centered.

    The seismological service initially reported the magnitude as 7, but revised it downward to 6.9 in a subsequent report. According to the survey's updated figures, the quake occurred at 2321GMT Sunday and was centered about 43 kilometers (27 miles) east-northeast of an area called Tambo, and about 467 kilometers (290 miles) southeast of the capital of Lima. It had a depth of 101 kilometers (62.8 miles), the survey said.

    Local media said that the quake was felt in parts of Lima and in many major cities of southeastern Peru, including Cuzco and Arequipa.

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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism



    "Dude... where's my.... everything?"
    (Wow, if that guy isn't a sterotypical Californian, I don't know what is! )
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Another quake JUST occurred.

    California. Napa Valley area. More wine... just gone. It's horrible!
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    Default Re: Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    NEWS Renewed calls for early-warning system after quake

    California quake leads to renewed calls for earthquake early-warning system after Napa temblor












    SUDHIN THANAWALA




    SAN FRANCISCO - In the coming years, Californians could have valuable seconds of warning before earthquakes such as this week's wine country temblor strike.
    Earthquake early warning systems that provide such notice are in place in Mexico and Japan. But California has lagged behind those countries.
    Sunday's rolling 6.0 shake near Napa has led to renewed calls for its quick deployment before another, possibly more destructive temblor strikes. Researchers are testing a system that could provide tens of seconds of warning, but it is not available for public use.
    The state, meanwhile, has directed its Office of Emergency Services to develop an early-warning system and identify funding sources. The system would cost about $80 million.
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