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Thread: Life - out there....

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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Let me POINT SOMETHING OUT.

    If you study the solar system like I have you will realize that there was once a planet where the asteroid belt is located. Mars was a MOON of a planet there.

    Implications? The bigger planet blew up, exploded, got hit, or somehow or another became all the rubble you see. Mars was most LIKELY a planet with an atmosphere at the time, green like Earth, and likely had a lot of water then.

    When the bigger planet blew up it left rubble. And Mars in the old orbit, actually a bit further away from where the center of gravity would have held it previously.

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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Discounting Pluto in the next chart.....

    Distances between Planets Table
    Planet Mean Distance From Sun (millions of miles) Mean Distance in AU Mean Diameter (miles)
    Mercury 36.0 0.39 3,031
    Venus 67.1 0.72 7,521
    Earth 92.9 1.00 7,926
    Mars 141.5 1.52 4,221
    Jupiter
    483.4 5.20 88,734
    Saturn 886.7 9.54 74,566
    Uranus 1,782.7 19.14 31,566
    Neptune 2,794.3 30.06 30,199
    Pluto 3,666.1 39.53 1,450


    A planet should be sitting roughly at 290 million miles mean distance from the sun.

    Hmmm and guess what?

    The inner edge is about 220 million miles, the outer edge about 370 million miles. There is no sharp boundary.

    That is a predictable pattern in our own Solar System and no one has bothered to explain it or use it as part of our solar system studies. Why is that?

    I have known this since I was 8 years old. I even wrote a freaking paper on it in elementary school!

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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    http://www.livescience.com/42540-how...lizations.html

    Incredible Technology: How to Search for Advanced Alien Civilizations
    By Tanya Lewis, Staff Writer | January 14, 2014 10:06am ET


    Editor's Note: In this weekly series, LiveScience explores how technology drives scientific exploration and discovery.

    Look at a picture of the Earth at night, and the world appears to be, quite literally, glowing. Now, scientists are starting to look for signs of advanced alien civilizations by the glow given off by technology used to harvest the energy from a star or even an entire galaxy.

    Theoretical physicist and mathematician Freeman Dyson first proposed the idea that advanced alien civilizations might develop technology to encircle a star and harvest most of its power, a structure now known as a Dyson sphere. If these objects do exist, astronomers might be able to detect the waste heat they produce using telescopes that peer into space using infrared light.

    "The main point," Dyson told LiveScience, "is looking for aliens who don't want to communicate. My question was, 'How do you look for silent aliens?' They have to radiate away their waste heat. The only way to do that is to radiate lots of infrared radiation." [13 Ways to Hunt Intelligent Aliens]

    Now, astronomers at Pennsylvania State University are starting to narrow the search for Dyson spheres. But the search has only just begun, and may take hundreds of years, Dyson said. Finding Dyson spheres isn't inevitable, but "it's certainly possible," he said.

    Great balls of fire

    Dyson Spheres could provide power for advanced alien civilizations.

    By surrounding their star with swarms of energy-collecting satellites, advanced civilizations could create Dyson spheres. See full infographic


    Much of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) effort has focused on listening for radio signals sent by an intelligent civilization, as depicted in the movie "Contact." But this approach assumes the aliens want to communicate with humans. Dyson spheres get around this problem, because even a civilization that wasn't actively trying to communicate with others would give off waste heat.

    Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev classified long-lived civilizations as one of three types: those that control the resources of a planet (Type I), of a star (Type II), or of a galaxy (Type III). A Dyson sphere represents a Type II civilization.

    An episode of "Star Trek: The Next Generation" depicts the starship Enterprise responding to a distress call from a transport ship that has crashed into the outer hull of a Dyson sphere. But Dyson himself never envisioned the structure as a solid sphere.

    "It doesn't have to be a sphere at all," Dyson said, "just any place where aliens happen to be generating a lot of energy." He described his structure as an "artificial biosphere," which could be a cloud of objects orbiting a star closely enough to absorb all the starlight. A solid sphere would be too weak to support its weight against the gravity of a star. [Shell-Worlds: How Humanity Could Terraform Small Planets (Infographic)]

    Dyson estimated that an alien civilization with a surface temperature around 80 degrees Fahrenheit (27 degrees Celsius) would emit infrared radiation at a wavelength of around 10 microns. Earth's atmosphere emits a lot of radiation in this region, so a telescope located in space would work best. But the necessary technology wasn't available when Dyson proposed the idea.

    Searching for Dyson spheres

    Then, in 1983, an international team launched the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), the first observatory to image the entire sky in infrared light. "It turns out the sky is crawling with infrared sources," Dyson said, but most of these are from galactic dust and other natural sources.

    More recently, Richard Carrigan, now a scientist emeritus at Fermilab near Batavia, Ill., used IRAS to look for Dyson spheres. "By the time I got to it, there had been a nice history of people trying, but not on a systematic scale," Carrigan said.

    A Dyson sphere should act like a "black body," a hypothetical object that absorbs all the electromagnetic radiation falling on it and radiates energy depending on its temperature. A black body looks similar to galactic dust in the infrared, but there are differences in the spectra — the range of colors corresponding to its composition. [UFO

    Dyson sphere galaxiesCarrigan measured the infrared spectra using IRAS's spectrometer, but found only a few objects within several hundred light-years of Earth that could be Dyson spheres. (One light-year is about 5.9 trillion miles, or 9.5 trillion kilometers.) He and his colleagues used the SETI Institute's Allen Array to listen for radio signals emanating from these objects, but found none.

    What if alien civilizations have developed Dyson spheres that use the energy from entire galaxies? Carrigan tried searching for Dyson sphere galaxies, because those would be easiest to detect. Now, Jason Wright, an astrophysicist at Pennsylvania State University, is doing the same thing, using the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) space telescope.

    "WISE was launched by NASA for pure, natural astrophysics," Wright said — "it just happened to be perfect Dyson sphere finder." If a Dyson sphere galaxy were giving off mid-infrared, it would be "boomingly bright," Wright said.

    Wright and his colleagues found no evidence of Dyson spheres that block out 50 to 100 percent of their galaxy's light. Now, his team is trying to narrow down the fraction of a galaxy that could be contained by Dyson spheres even further: "We think we can get down to 20 to 30 percent with the WISE satellite itself," he said. The team plans to follow up on the best Dyson sphere candidates with other telescopes, and go on to look for Dyson spheres around individual stars.

    Another idea that Dyson himself proposed, but which astronomers haven't tried, is to look for "skid marks" on the sky from spacecraft slowing down from speeds close to the speed of light. These could create long streaks of ionized gas that might be visible to some telescopes, Dyson said.

    If astronomers do find hints of Dyson spheres or other extraterrestrial technology, it would trigger a worldwide effort to look at them using different astronomical instruments. Even if scientists don't find alien civilizations, the search could discover interesting new physics.

    "At the very worst, we will be able to put an upward limit on the amount of starlight alien civilizations use," Wright said, "and at best, we might find something very interesting and extraordinary — whether a new class of astrophysical object, or something so strange we'll need to point SETI instruments at it."
    - See more at: http://www.livescience.com/42540-how....2oYsuKFi.dpuf
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Bill Clinton hopes when aliens visit Earth 'it's not like 'Independence Day''

    The 42nd President appeared on ‘Jimmy Kimmel Live’ Wednesday to chat with the late-night host about alien life in the universe and how a visit from extraterrestrials could quell in-fighting in Washington.

    BY Leslie Larson
    NEW YORK DAILY NEWS
    Thursday, April 3, 2014, 9:22 AM





    ABC Clinton is convinced that if aliens did visit Earth, bipartisan cooperation in Washington would be instantaneous.

    Bill Clinton does not believe we are alone.
    The former President admitted if aliens “visited someday, I wouldn’t be surprised.”
    “I just hope it’s not like ‘Independence Day,’” he joked to ABC’s Jimmy Kimmel Wednesday night, predicting extraterrestrial visitors might actually help quell bipartisan tension in Washington.
    “Think of how all the differences among the Earth would seems small if we felt threatened by a space invader,” he wondered.
    The 42nd President assured viewers though that there is not a government conspiracy to cover up an alien invasion, explaining how during his administration his staff reviewed records on Area 51, the Nevada military testing center, and Roswell, the New Mexico site of a purported UFO sighting.
    20th Century Fox Clinton says he hopes when aliens do touch down on earth, it's not like the violent landing in the sci-fi thriller 'Independence Day.'

    “There are no aliens [at those spots],” he declared.
    That said, Clinton is in awe of the “ever-expanding universe” and the new planets discovered each year.
    “It makes it increasingly less likely that we’re alone.”
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Yeah, right.

    We all know better.

    I am reasonably certain we've had contact, and that's the reason for so many things I've seen throughout my career... planning for the worst.
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    One Of Saturn's Moons Contains Water, Could Contain Life

    By Courtney Flannery 2014-04-04 07:21:07 Tweet



    The search for life in our universe is dependent on technological advances and scientists learning exactly what it takes to make life. We now have a better idea of what is necessary, but we are still searching for areas that are possibly habitable. Fortunately, we may have finally had a break on that front. Scientists have discovered something on a distant moon that may just harbor extra terrestrial life, or at least the stuff to form it.

    According to CNN, one of Saturn's moons apparently has an underground ocean. The Cassini spacecraft which has been orbiting the moon has taken measurements that have brought the discovery of this ocean to NASA scientists. Enceladus, the sixth largest moon of Saturn, appears to have an ocean that is possibly habitable or at least was habitable in the past. The ocean is at least the size of Lake Superior and is underneath a thick layer of ice. Water on other planets and moons in our solar system is pretty rare, and just a couple moons of Saturn and Jupiter are suspected to have oceans underneath their icy surfaces.

    Enceladus's surface has ice thicknesses that vary from 30 miles thick to 18 to 24 miles thick, and underneath the ice is a rocky surface. The ocean under the ice is thought to be at least five miles deep and spread out in a lens shape over a rocky core. The coolest part is that based on new and previous measurements, it's likely that the water at its south pole has been circulating through elements that are essential for life forming, like phosphorous and sulfur. This means that it's possible that this water might contain life forms of some sort.

    In addition to the water circulating through those elements, the Cassini satellite that orbited Enceladus has detected “tiger stripes,” on the surface of the moon. The stripes on the southern part of the moon, where the ocean was discovered, emit water vapor jets that are rich in salt. Cassini also detected organic materials, that may come from biological or unbiological sources but could be another indicator that life could be in the water of Encleadus.

    Humans are pretty determined to find life somewhere else in the universe. It seems that scientific advances are getting us closer than ever to finding our interstellar family. The Kepler telescope and other advances has have helped us map out and discover more planets and stelllar bodies that might be habitable. We even have a tool that will allow scientists to measure the universe within an accuracy of 1%. The discovery on Encleadus is just another step in the right direction.

    Right now, drilling for the water on Encleadus isn't an option because the ice is just too thick for a drill, and the water may not be accessible. However, more sophisticated and advanced spacecraft that are better than Cassini may be able to fly through the vapor being shot out from the tiger stripes and use instruments to measure exactly what is present. Once the molecules can be analyzed thoroughly, it can give a very good answer about whether or not there are living things in Encleadus's ocean. So with a little patience and some new technology, maybe we will soon know who, or what, our extraterrestrial neighbors are.
    - See more at: http://www.cinemablend.com/pop/One-S....lytohLys.dpuf
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Saturn’s Moon a Possible Host for Alien Life Says NASA

    Added by Sara Watson on April 4, 2014.
    Saved under Moon, Sara Watson, Saturn, Science
    Tags: moon
    Hiding in the shadow of the great ringed gas giant of Saturn is a small unassuming moon by the name of Enceladus. But on this small planet, NASA has said that they have found signs of a vast ocean hidden under a crust of ice. The icy water could signal that it may be possible for the moon to host alien life.

    In 2005, Enceladus decided to put on a show. The small moon sent out a number of great plumes of mineral dense water into the surrounding atmosphere. These waves were forced out of “tiger stripe” cracks close to the southern pole. Scientists hypothesized that these plumes could be the result of a vast ocean hidden under the ice, but at the time, they could not be sure.


    Now they have been able to use new data from NASA’s Cassini probe to analyze the possibility that there is an ocean on the moon. Cassini passed over the moon several times and scientists measured the gravity using the Doppler Method; which is said to be based on the wavering signal coming from the probe. Cassini was tracked via how much change there was in the signal, in response to the gravitational pull. If the signal fluctuated it would indicate that there is a denser area beneath the ice. As Cassini moved towards the south pole, the signal began to weaken in response to a stronger pull from the moon. The increased density can only be explained as being the result of something beneath the ice that is heavier in that area. This, along with the waterworks display, has led scientists to believe that there may be a large sea around the south pole. This ocean has been estimated to be around the size of Lake Superior. For any kind of life that we know to be possible, water is needed. The fact that there is water present on this small moon of Saturn, suggests that Enceladus could host alien life.


    On the whole, Enceladus is a tough sell as any kind of tourist destination. It is a small, frozen wasteland, only about 314 miles across. It would seem to be too small to hold a vast reservoir of water under its icy shell, but it does have a rather special attribute to generate heat. Enceladus is stuck in a three-way orbit between Saturn and Dione, a larger moon. Dione pulls on Enceladus, forcing its orbit into an elliptical ring. But it is this pull from its two neighbours that allows poor Enceladus to generate enough heat to make water possible.


    However, Enceladus is not the only moon to exhibit the possible conditions to support alien life. Jupiter’s moon Europa, is also thought to house water under its skin. It has the added bonus of showing signs of volcanic activity in the past as well. Jupiter’s other bosom buddies Ganymede and Callisto also have showed signs that they may have water. But, the conditions on Enceladus are primed to create life, as the other moons have water that is sitting on levels of underwater ice, whereas Saturn’s baby moon has water over the silicate core. Silicate is known to be a mix of salts, phosphorous and sulfur, which, in the right cauldron, could allow life to bloom.


    The probe Cassini arrived in the region of Saturn in 2004 and is said to be scheduled to crash into the gas giant in 2017. Scientists are now hoping to devote a large part of its remaining time to further exploration of Enceladus. They are hoping to find out more to support NASA’s theory that the moon could possibly host alien life.
    By Sara Watson
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Well, I am not so sure about a family reunion here.....


    Astronomers Find Sun’s ‘Long-Lost Brother,’ Pave Way for Family Reunion

    May 8, 2014


    AUSTIN, Texas — A team of researchers led by astronomer Ivan Ramirez of The University of Texas at Austin has identified the first “sibling” of the sun — a star almost certainly born from the same cloud of gas and dust as our star. Ramirez’s methods will help astronomers find other solar siblings, which could lead to an understanding of how and where our sun formed, and how our solar system became hospitable for life. The work appears in the June 1 issue of The Astrophysical Journal.


    Solar sibling HD 162826 is not visible to the unaided eye, but can be seen with low-power binoculars near the bright star Vega in the night sky. A high-resolution version of this chart is available at http://mcdonaldobservatory.org/news/releases/2014/05/08 . (Credit: Ivan Ramirez/Tim Jones/McDonald Observatory)



    “We want to know where we were born,” Ramirez said. “If we can figure out in what part of the galaxy the sun formed, we can constrain conditions on the early solar system. That could help us understand why we are here.”


    Additionally, there is a chance, “small, but not zero,” Ramirez said, that these solar sibling stars could host planets that harbor life. In their earliest days within their birth cluster, he explains, collisions could have knocked chunks off of planets, and these fragments could have traveled between solar systems, and perhaps even may have been responsible for bringing primitive life to Earth. “So it could be argued that solar siblings are key candidates in the search for extraterrestrial life,” Ramirez said.


    The solar sibling his team identified is called HD 162826, a star 15 percent more massive than the sun, located 110 light-years away in the constellation Hercules. The star is not visible to the unaided eye but easily can be seen with low-power binoculars, not far from the bright star Vega.


    The team identified HD 162826 as our sun’s sibling by following up on 30 possible candidates found by several groups around the world looking for solar siblings. Ramirez’s team studied 23 of these stars in depth with the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the remaining stars (visible only from the southern hemisphere) with the Clay Magellan Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. All of these observations used high-resolution spectroscopy to get a deep understanding of the stars’ chemical make-up.


    But several factors are needed to really pin down a solar sibling, Ramirez said. In addition to chemical analysis, his team also included information about the stars’ orbits — where they had been and where they are going in their paths around the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Considering both chemistry and orbits narrowed the field of candidates down to one: HD 162826.


    No one knows whether this star hosts any life-bearing planets. But by “lucky coincidence,” Ramirez said, the McDonald Observatory Planet Search team has been observing HD 162826 for more than 15 years. Studies by The University of Texas’ Michael Endl and William Cochran, together with calculations by Rob Wittenmyer of the University of New South Wales, have ruled out any massive planets orbiting close to the star (so-called hot Jupiters), and indicate that it’s unlikely that a Jupiter analog orbits the star. The studies do not rule out the presence of smaller terrestrial planets.


    The finding of a single solar sibling is intriguing, but Ramirez points out the project has a larger purpose: to create a road map for how to identify solar siblings, in preparation for the flood of data expected soon from surveys such as Gaia, the European Space Agency mission to create the largest and most precise 3-D map of the Milky Way.


    The data coming soon from Gaia is “not going to be limited to the solar neighborhood,” Ramirez said, noting that Gaia will provide accurate distances and proper motions for a billion stars, allowing astronomers to search for solar siblings all the way to the center of our galaxy. “The number of stars that we can study will increase by a factor of 10,000,” Ramirez said.


    He says his team’s road map will speed up the process of winnowing down the field of potential solar siblings.


    “Don’t invest a lot of time in analyzing every detail in every star,” he said. “You can concentrate on certain key chemical elements that are going to be very useful.” These elements are ones that vary greatly among stars, which otherwise have very similar chemical compositions. These highly variable chemical elements are largely dependent on where in the galaxy the star formed. Ramirez’s team has identified the elements barium and yttrium as particularly useful.


    Once many more solar siblings have been identified, astronomers will be one step closer to knowing where and how the sun formed. To reach that goal, the dynamics specialists will make models that run the orbits of all known solar siblings backward in time to find where they intersect: their birthplace.


    Note to editors: A high-resolution version of this chart is available at http://mcdonaldobservatory.org/news/releases/2014/05/08



    For more information, contact: Rebecca Johnson, McDonald Observatory, College of Natural Sciences, 512 475 6763; Dr. Ivan Ramirez: The University of Texas at Austin, 512-471-7216; ivan@astro.as.utexas.edu.


    Tags: astronomy, College of Natural Sciences, Harlan J. Smith Telescope, Ivan Ramirez, McDonald Observatory, science, space, telescope
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Ok... picture this.

    Earth is inhabited by humans and thousands, perhaps even millions of other species.

    Along comes an alien race of insects.

    This is how I picture the world ending.

    In a few hours.

    PS. Don't want this if swarms of bugs give you nightmares. lol

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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    "Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs even though checkered by failure, than to rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy nor suffer much because they live in the gray twilight that knows neither victory nor defeat."
    -- Theodore Roosevelt


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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    hehehehe
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Boffins receive MYSTERIOUS RADIO SIGNAL from BEYOND OUR GALAXY

    'Fast burst' from waaaay out





    43


    20 Jan 2015 at 01:56, Richard Chirgwin




    The Antipodean Parkes radio telescope – menaced by budget cuts – has delivered its first science scoop for 2015, and it's a big one indeed. The mighty instrument has given astronomers their only real-time view so far of the unexplained phenomenon known as the Fast Radio Burst (FRB).


    FRBs were first observed by astronomers looking through archival data from “The Dish”, and received the first independent confirmation of their existence in 2013.


    Now, astro-boffins have had a hot bet pay off: a team of astronomers from Swinburne University led by PhD student Emily Petroff developed a technique to look for FRBs in real time and used the 64-metre radio-telescope to see if it would work.


    The event was caught by Parkes' real-time transient pipeline: “We record 8-bit full-polarization data from two orthogonal linear feeds per beam, with 1024 frequency channels over 400 MHz of bandwidth, from 1182 to 1582 MHz, and 64-μs time resolution”, the researchers' paper states.


    A millisecond sun: the plot of the FRB
    Image: Petroff et al



    So that their work wouldn't be dismissed as a measurement artefact, Swinburne explains in its release, an international team was lined up to make follow-up observations in wavelengths all the way up to X-ray.


    The FRB is well outside the Milky Way, at 5.5 billion light-years' distance.


    The University of Copenhagen Niels Bohr Institute's Daniele Malesani told Astronomy Now the Swift space telescope observed two X-Ray sources at the same position as the FRB, but these were ruled out by the Nordic Optical Telescope at La Palma.


    “We observed in visible light and we could see that there were two quasars, that is to say, active black holes. They had nothing to do with the radio wave bursts, but just happen to be located in the same direction,” explained Giorgos Leloudas, also of the Niels Bohr Institute and Israel's Weizmann Institute.


    It turned out that the FRB didn't show up in the infrared or UV spectra either, so while it put out energy equivalent to the Sun's daily output in a few milliseconds, what causes FRBs is so far still a mystery.


    There is, however, another hint that the Parkes group was able to capture. The signal shows more than 20 per cent circular polarisation, suggesting that the source of the FRB was close to a strong magnetic field.


    The paper is available in full from Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, here.
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Mysterious `cosmic radio burst` captured in real-time for first time ever

    Jan 20, 11:17 am








    Washington, Jan 20 (ANI): Australia astronomers have, for the first time, captured cosmic radio burst in real-time by using CSIRO's 64-m Parkes radio telescope.
    Researcher Emily Petroff from University of Technology in Melbourne said that these bursts were generally discovered weeks or months or even more than a decade after they happened and they're the first to catch one in real time.
    Banking that she'd spot a "live" burst, Petroff had an international team poised to make rapid follow-up observations, at wavelengths from radio to X-rays.
    After Parkes saw the burst go off the team swung into action on twelve telescopes around the world, in Australia, California, the Canary Islands, Chile, Germany, Hawaii, and India and in space.
    Team member Mansi Kasliwal of the Carnegie Institution in Pasadena, California said that no optical, infrared, ultraviolet or X-ray counterpart showed up and that in itself rules out some possible candidates, such as long gamma-ray bursts and nearby supernovae.
    But short or low-energy gamma-ray bursts and giant flares from distant magnetars (the most magnetic stars in the Universe) are still contenders, she added. So too are imploding neutron stars.
    One of the big unknowns of fast radio bursts is their distances and the characteristics of the radio signal, how it is "smeared out" in frequency from travelling through space, indicate that the source of the new burst was up to 5.5 billion light-years away.
    Team member Daniele Malesani of the University of Copenhagen added that this means it could have given off as much energy in a few milliseconds as the Sun does in a day.
    The study is published in the Royal Astronomical Society. (ANI)
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Unexplained cosmic radio burst captured in real-time

    "It's something nobody has ever measured before," Emily Petroff said.
    By Brooks Hays | Jan. 19, 2015 at 7:03 PM
    Comments
















    The Parkes Observatory in New South Wales was able to record a blitzar in real-time using its telescopes. Photo by John Sarkissian/CSIRO Parkes Observatory.




    PARKES, Australia, Jan. 19 (UPI) -- For the first time in history, a fast radio burst (FRB) was recorded in real-time. The massive (but quickly dissipating) burst of radio waves was captured by the Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. A fast radio burst, sometimes called a blitzar, is a tight band of radio-frequency waves that lasts only a millisecond. But the energy packed into that fleeting burst is the equivalent of what the sun puts out over the course of one million years.
    FRBs remain unexplained by astronomers, but the leading theory posits an oversized neutron star as the culprit -- a neuron star so large that it should collapse and become black hole, only it's spinning too fast.
    The capture of this brief but high-powered event is certainly monumental, researchers say. The event was actually detected last year, on May 14. But eight months later, scientists still aren't yet sure what the data means.
    Whatever created this FRB must be "huge, cataclysmic and up to 5.5 billion light years away" according to Emily Petroff, a researcher at Swinburne University in Melbourne, Australia, who recently discussed her and her colleagues' impressive but puzzling findings with New Scientist.
    "It's something nobody has ever measured before," Petroff said. And while she and her research partners assume the recording will eventually reveal something new about FRBs, experts are currently at a loss as to how to interpret the recording.
    "Nobody knows what to make of it," conferred Keith Bannister, a researcher at CSIRO, Australia's national science agency. "All the ideas are very exotic so ruling them out is all you can do at the moment."
    The evidence of a supposed FRB was first noticed in telescopic data from Puerto Rico in 2007. The mysterious phenomenon has been observed after-the-fact a few times since. This latest study, lead by Petroff, included analysis by astronomers across the globe.
    And while their reexamination of known FRB fields led to the first-ever real-time recording of a blitzar event, their research efforts have left scientists just as puzzled as they were before.
    The new study detailing last year's burst was published this week in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    I don't really think this is "life forms" broadcasting.

    But rather the likely left overs from a nova or supernova. The detonation of a star is not unlike a nuclear explosion. Difference being a start IS an on-going nuclear explosion that is just going and going and going.

    However when a star explodes in many cases it has collapsed on itself and compacted to the point of extremely high density. Basically the same... composition of a nuclear bomb at that point.

    Nuclear explosions put out massive electromagnetic pulses and they probably travel through the universe forever.

    So, this is most likely NOT the indication of intelligent life forms, but rather the destruction of a massive star, billions of years ago.
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Not sure of the veracity of this yet. Came from Huffington Post so I don't believe much of what they write. I'll try to get more information though.


    UK Scientists: Aliens May Have Sent Space Seeds To Create Life On Earth

    The Huffington Post | By Lee Speigel

    Posted: Updated:









    Scientists in the U.K. have examined a tiny metal circular object, and are suggesting it might be a micro-organism deliberately sent by extraterrestrials to create life on Earth.


    Don't be fooled by the size of the object in the microscopic image above. It may appear to look like a planet-sized globe, but in fact, it's no bigger than the width of a human hair.


    The University of Buckingham reports that the minuscule metal globe was discovered by astrobiologist Milton Wainwright and a team of researchers who examined dust and minute matter gathered by a high-flying balloon in Earth's stratosphere.


    "It is a ball about the width of a human hair, which has filamentous life on the outside and a gooey biological material oozing from its centre," Wainwright said, according to Express.co.uk.


    "One theory is it was sent to Earth by some unknown civilization in order to continue seeding the planet with life," Wainwright hypothesizes.
    That theory comes from a Nobel Prize winner.


    "This seeming piece of science fiction -- called 'directed panspermia' -- would probably not be taken seriously by any scientist were it not for the fact that it was very seriously suggested by the Nobel Prize winner of DNA fame, Francis Crick," said Wainwright.


    Panspermia is a theory that suggests life spreads across the known physical universe, hitchhiking on comets or meteorites.


    The idea of directed panspermia was suggested by Crick, a molecular biologist, who was the co-discoverer of the structure of DNA in 1953. Twenty years later, Crick co-wrote -- with biochemist Leslie Orgel -- a scientific paper about directed panspermia.
    The abstract of their manuscript states:
    It now seems unlikely that extraterrestrial living organisms could have reached the Earth either as spores driven by the radiation pressure from another star or as living organisms imbedded in a meteorite. As an alternative to these nineteenth-century mechanisms, we have considered Directed Panspermia, the theory that organisms were deliberately transmitted to the Earth by intelligent beings on another planet.
    We conclude that it is possible that life reached the Earth in this way, but that the scientific evidence is inadequate at the present time to say anything about the probability. We draw attention to the kinds of evidence that might throw additional light on the topic.
    In contrast to what Crick-Orgel speculated about in 1973, four decades later, a team of scientists, led by astronomer-astrobiologist Chandra Wickramasinghe of the Buckingham Center for Astrobiology, announced they had found fossils with biological properties attached to a meteorite (check out the slideshow at the bottom of this story) that fell in Sri Lanka.


    Of course, these controversial claims bring forth the skeptical side of science.


    In the case of the meteorite fossils, astronomer Phil Plait wrote that the scientists didn't do a good enough job convincing him there were actual fossils in that meteorite.


    Wainwright and his team launched balloons nearly 17 miles into Earth's stratosphere, and when they examined the material collected by one of the balloons (like the one pictured below), they discovered a small crash mark which indicated to them that the microscopic, circular object didn't simply land softly.


    "On hitting the stratosphere sampler, the sphere made an impact crater, a minute version of the huge impact crater on Earth caused by the asteroid said to have killed off the dinosaurs," Wainwright said.



    Even with this more recent discovery of a tiny globe found lodged into a high-flying balloon, the alien space seed proponents know they have a long way to go before that can be proven and accepted by the scientific community.


    "Unless, of course, we can find details of the civilization that is supposed to have sent it in this respect, it is probably an unprovable theory," Wainwright conceded.


    Time -- and space -- will tell.
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Is this picture a 'seed' sent to Earth by aliens? Scientists discover mysterious organism

    THIS astonishing picture of an “organism” found in space has baffled scientists who think it is a “seed” sent to Earth by aliens.

    By Nathan Rao









    University of Buckingham

    Some scientists believe this is a seed sent to earth by aliens

    The never-before seen image shows a microscopic metal globe spewing out biological material feared to be an infectious agent.


    Though the origin or purpose of the mysterious sphere is uncertain, experts say it could contain genetic material - the precursor to life.


    They sensationally claim it could have been designed by an intelligent species to “seed” and propagate alien life on Earth.


    It is the first time anything like this has been seen and points not only to the existence of extra-terrestrial life, but to complex and civilised beings watching our planet.


    It follows findings that DNA capable of inserting itself into living creatures and replicating can exist in harsh space conditions.


    A tiny ‘plasmid’, a circular strand of DNA used in genetic engineering, was sent into space from Sweden in 2011 on the exterior of a TEXUS-49 rocket.



    University of Buckingham

    The mysterious organism has baffled scientists

    After enduring 1,000C heat it was found to still be intact and with its biological properties when it returned to Earth.


    Professor Chandra Wickramasinghe director of the Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology at the University of Buckingham in England, said it is further proof of alien life.


    However the latest finding, by Professor Milton Wainwright and his team from the University of Sheffield and the University of Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology, could reveal a much more sinister purpose.


    Conjuring images as warned by H.G Wells in his 1898 novel War of the Worlds - it could have been deliberately engineered and sent to Earth to infect the planet.


    Professor Wainwright said the structure is made from the metals titanium and vanadium with a “gooey” biological liquid oozing from its centre.


    He said there are several theories as to where it came from, the first being it is a complete microorganism programmed to propagate alien life on Earth.


    “It is a ball about the width of a human hair, which has filamentous life on the outside and a gooey biological material oozing from its centre,” he said.



    “We were stunned when X-ray analysis showed that the sphere is made up mainly of titanium, with a trace of vanadium.


    “One theory is it was sent to Earth by some unknown civilisation in order to continue seeding the planet with life.


    “This seeming piece of science fiction, called “directed panspermia” would probably not be taken seriously by any scientist were it not for the fact that it was very seriously suggested by the Nobel Prize winner of DNA fame, Sir Francis Crick.


    “Unless of course we can find details of the civilisation that is supposed to have sent it in this respect it is probably an unprovable theory.”


    Professor Wainwright and his team found the object in dust and particulate matter collected from the stratosphere.


    He sent balloons 27km into the sky to collect debris from space and isolated several particles he claims are proof of life in space.


    It comes as the mysterious “ghost particle”, also found by Professor Wainwright was revealed and follows the revelation last year of the astonishing “Dragon Particle” the first of its kind to point towards proof of life in space.


    Professor Wainwright said the curious orb landed on the sampler balloon it left a tiny impact crater proving it could not have gently fallen from close by.


    He said: “On hitting the stratosphere sampler the sphere made an impact crater, a minute version of the huge impact crater on Earth caused by the asteroid said to have killed off the dinosaurs.


    “This impact crater proves that the sphere was incoming to Earth from space, an organism coming from Earth would not be travelling fast enough when it fell back to Earth to cause such damage.


    “This seems never before to have been found on Earth.”


    He said one theory is the object was released deliberately to infect the human race with life-threatening diseases, another is that it travelled millions of miles on a comet.


    He said: “For the moment, we are content to say that the life-containing titanium sphere came from space, possibly from a comet.


    “NASA is currently sending a balloon into the stratosphere to look for life.


    “Hopefully they will get the same results as we have, whether or not they acknowledge what the team have found, or claim the discovery for themselves remains to be seen.”


    The findings come as scientists in the UK and Japan launch the ISPA (Institute for the Study of Panspermia and Astroeconomics) which seeks to prove life on Earth originated from Space.


    Professor Wickramasinghe, director for research at the institute has long-maintained biological material including bacteria and viruses are constantly raining down from the skies.


    He said: “Mainstream science and institutions have fought against theories which expound these beliefs but now evidence from meteorites, from samples of bacteria from space and from space observation is making resistance more difficult.


    “Proving that the Earth is in a constant exchange of matter with the larger cosmos would have implications not only in terms of our identity, but could also give us insight into alien viruses which may be important for our group identity, evolution and survival itself.”


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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    GHOST PARTICLE: The picture proof that shows aliens ARE out there

    THIS extraordinary image is further proof that aliens DO EXISTS, scientists have sensationally claimed.

    By Nathan Rao





    22



    University of Sheffield GETTY
    The spectre-like ghost particle was discovered in debris
    The eerie and never-before seen picture reveals a spectral-like ‘ghost particle’ discovered in debris gathered from outer space.
    Exclusively unveiled by the Daily Express, it shows what is thought to be a ‘living balloon’ which once used to carry microscopic alien organisms.
    Discovered by Professor Milton Wainwright and his team from the University of Sheffield and the University of Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology, it is, they claim, the latest proof aliens exist.
    It could even be the next step in piecing together the age-long conundrum of where life on Earth came from, with experts firmly pointing the finger outside our planet.
    Professor Wainwright insists the particle, found in dust and particulate matter collected from the stratosphere, is biological.
    Sheffield University
    The ghost particle resembles a wisp of smoke
    Resembling a wisp of smoke under the microscope the minuscule organism, could hold the key to the long-pondered question “are we alone?”.
    Professor Wainwright said: “This is nothing short of a New Year’s present from outer space.
    “The width of a human hair and resembling a chiffon scarf with a ghostly appearance, the particle is definitely biological.
    “We can speculate that in its space environment this ‘ghost particle’ is a living balloon which an alien microscopic organism might inflate with lighter than air gasses allowing it to float in the air or the seas of an unknown space environment.
    “The particle in the picture looks is more like a collapsed balloon, however in its natural state is probably inflated”.

    It is set to throw the scientific community into a frenzy of excitement and comes after the discovery last October of a similar ‘dragon particle’ by Professor Wainwright and his team.
    Both particles were found by sending balloons into the stratosphere 27 km above the Earth’s atmosphere and examining debris pulled back from space.
    Professor Wainwright said: “These are like nothing previously found on Earth.
    “It is amazing is that they appear on the sampling stubs in an absolutely pristine condition with no contamination like pollen, grass or pollution particles “Unless a means of lifting them from Earth exists which selectively sieves them out from other Earth-derived debris then they must be incoming from space.
    “They also produce tiny dents we call impact craters when they land on the sampler so there is almost no doubt of their space origin.”
    Last year astronauts announced they had found traces of life on the surface of the International Space Station (ISS) which orbits Earth.
    The discovery of tiny plankton on the ISS was the first time complex organisms were discovered in outer space.
    Experiments previously showed bacteria can survive outside our planet but the discovery of the so-called diatoms supports the theory that the biochemical catalyst for human life originated elsewhere in the universe.
    The research lent credence theories that not only does life exist in outer space, but extraterrestrial organisms including unknown viruses are continually raining down on earth.
    Professor Chandra Wickramasinghe, director of the Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology at the University of Buckingham in England, said newly released research shows DNA - the building blocks of life - can survive harsh extra-terrestrial conditions.
    A small piece of DNA called a ‘plasmid’ was sent into space from Sweden in 2011 on the exterior of a TEXUS-49 rocket.
    After enduring 1,000C heat it was found to still be intact and with its biological properties when it returned to Earth.
    Professor Wickramasinghe, who has long-maintained that alien life does exist, hailed the finding as further proof of this.
    He said viruses and viral particles are constantly raining down on Earth from space in a process called cometary panspermia.
    “DNA carries the blueprint of all life, and its survival during space travel is essential if life is to be regarded a cosmic phenomenon,” he said.
    “This finding shows that DNA and viruses can survive the rigours of space travel – escape at high speed through the atmosphere of one planet and land in tact on another.
    “The result gives strong support for the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of Evolution from Space.
    “It lends very strong support to the theory of cometary panspermia.”
    Professor Wainwright added: “Everything that we have on the Earth is derived from space, including humans.”
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    Could aliens have created life on Earth?

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    Annalee Newitz

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    Annalee NewitzFiled to: Io9 backgrounder



    6/14/12 7:00am






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    We know a lot about the history of life on Earth, but how it began is still one of our greatest scientific mysteries. One hypothesis is that life actually originated on another planet, and many scientists today take the idea quite seriously. Though it sounds like the plot from recent scifi movie Prometheus, it's an old idea that even the celebrated nineteenth century physicist Lord Kelvin and Nobel winning geneticist Francis Crick have advocated. That's right — the evolution of life might have its beginnings on another planet.
    Over 120 years ago, Kelvin shocked the British scientific community in a speech about what he called "panspermia," where he suggested that life might have come from planets smashing into each other and sending bits of life hurtling through space. He and a few colleagues had hit upon this notion after observing the massive 1880 eruption of a volcano on Krakatoa. To be more precise, they observed the aftermath of the volcano, which completely sterilized the island. No life was left at all. But then, within months, seedlings began to sprout and life took hold again.
    Where had that life come from? To naturalists of the nineteenth century, it was obvious that it had drifted there from nearby islands. Seeds and insects blown on the wind, or floating on the tides, had begun the process of re-greening the stricken landscape. This got Kelvin thinking about the origin of life on Earth. Couldn't the same thing happen to barren planets drifting in space? Perhaps life had drifted to Earth on the stellar winds.

    Aliens Seeded the Planet with Life
    Today, we know that most life wouldn't survive the trip through space. It would be bombarded by radiation and subjected to hard vacuum. But Francis Crick, who was one of the first biologists to identify the structure of DNA, suggested a way around this problem. In a 1972 paper he co-authored with biologist Leslie Orgel called "Directed Panspermia," Crick suggested that perhaps extraterrestrials had seeded the Earth with microbes sent in specialized spaceships that would protect the microbes. This is an idea we see a lot in science fiction, including Prometheus. Still, Crick and Orgel didn't imagine aliens dribbling DNA into our water supply — they suggested it might have been sent out in automated probes, perhaps with a kind of "missionary zeal."
    The problem, which Crick and Orgel discuss in the paper, is that it's incredibly hard to prove this hypothesis, or even to gather evidence one way or the other. That's why most scientists who study panspermia don't have much to say about the directed panspermia scenario. "It's not completely ridiculous," Purdue geophysicist Jay Melosh told io9. "It's fun to speculate about, but it's not the subject of really respectable scientific research because there's no evidence."
    That said, Melosh and many other scientists do think panspermia might be part of the solution to the mystery of how life began.

    We Come from Mars (or Europa)
    Directed panspermia is simply the most unlikely version of a story that is actually quite plausible. Take out the aliens and the spaceships, and you still have many possible ways that microbes from other worlds might have made it to Earth. And if those microbes came from nearby, the panspermia scenario becomes even more plausible.
    Cal Tech geologist Joe Kirschvink has suggested that Mars is a likely origin for life in the solar system because it would have been habitable long before Earth was. 4 billion years ago, when Earth was still a roiling cauldron of methane and magma, Mars was a stable, cool planet covered in vast oceans. It would have been the perfect place for microbial life to take hold. But how did that life make it all the way from the seas of Mars to the seas of Earth? Most likely, meteorites crashing into Mars would send fragments of the planet's surface back into space — packed with millions of microbes. In fact, around the time that Mars might have been developing life, the solar system was undergoing what astronomers call the "late heavy bombardment," a time of countless intense meteorite strikes.
    Purdue geologist Melosh, who has spent most of his career studying meteorite impacts, has actually done experiments where he and a team recreated what might have happened when meteorites slammed into Mars billions of years ago, sending ejecta out of the atmosphere and eventually all the way to Earth. This process is sometimes called "ballistic panspermia," or "lithopanspermia," because it depends on rocks being ejected into space. To recreate one part of this process in their experiments, Melosh and his team shot a bacteria-covered rock with an aluminum projectile moving at 5.4 km per second, and the shattered chunks flew over a kilometer. The bacteria survived the trauma of what Melosh and his team called "extremes of compressional shock, heating, and acceleration."
    After several of these tests, Melosh and his colleagues were certain that microbes could survive one of the most destructive parts of the ballistic panspermia journey:
    A lot [of the microbes] would die, but a lot would survive in a dormant state. Their journey would take possibly millions of years. But it's as if atmospheres are almost designed for this transfer of life. The meteorite comes from Mars, full of microbes protected from radiation by the rock. It enters Earth's atmosphere, and as it comes in at high speed the outside melts because of friction and gets hot, but the inside is protected just like a spacecraft capsule. The microbes inside are protected. Then the aerodynamic forces in the lower atmosphere fracture the meteorite, exposing the interior.
    The rock fragments rain over the land, and the surviving microbes can take hold.
    Most scientists who subscribe to this idea suggest that Mars is the likely source for a ballistic panspermia event, though Melosh isn't ruling out Jupiter's moon Europa either. Astronomers believe Europa harbors vast oceans beneath a thick layer of ice, and it's very possible that a meteorite could have crashed there, sending microbe-laced chunks of rocky ice into the inner solar system. Still other scientists suggest that life could even jump from one star system to another, and a recent paper on the topic explores how this could happen in star clusters. Still, it's not likely that Earth was seeded from beyond the system — unless aliens were behind it.

    A Valid Scientific Hypothesis
    A big question is why scientists are entertaining this idea at all. Doesn't it seem outlandish? Perhaps, but then again so is the sudden appearance of life on Earth over 3.5 billion years ago. How did we go from lifeless puddles of chemicals to strings of self-reproducing DNA on a planet that was at the time so inhospitable?
    Panspermia doesn't answer this question — we still aren't sure how the life switch got flipped — but it could help explain the conditions where that life evolved.
    NASA planetary scientist Chris McKay offered io9 a terrific, point-by-point explanation of why panspermia is, as he put it, "a valid scientific hypothesis" worth taking seriously:
    1. The geological evidence for the earliest life on Earth is very early, soon after the end of the late bombardment. There is good evidence for life on Earth at 3.5 billion years ago, indirect evidence at 3.8 billion. The end of the late heavy bombardment is 3.8 billion years ago.
    2. The genetic evidence indicates that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of life could have been roughly 3.5 billion years ago (but with large uncertainties) and that LUCA was a fairly sophisticated life form in terms of metabolic and genetic capabilities.
    1 and 2 together give the impression that life appeared on Earth soon after the formation of suitable environments and it appears to have come in being remarkably developed - like Athena born fully formed from the head of Zeus.
    3. Rocks from Mars have traveled to Earth and the internal temperatures experienced in these rocks during this trip would not have sterilized the interiors. Thus in principle life can be carried from Mars to Earth.
    4. Mars did not suffer the large Moon-forming impact that would have been detrimental to the early development of life on Earth.
    3 and 4 have lead to the suggestion that Mars would have been a better place for life to start in the early Solar System and it could have then been carried to Earth via meteorites.
    5. Organic molecules are widespread in comets, asteroids, and the interstellar medium.
    6. Comets could have supported subsurface liquid water environments soon after their formation due to internal heating by decay of radioactive aluminum.
    7. As comets move past the Earth they shed dust which settles into Earth's atmosphere.
    5, 6 and 7 have lead to the suggestion that life could have started in the interstellar medium or in small bodies such as comets and then been carried to the Earth by comet dust.
    So, yes panspermia is a valid scientific hypotheses and warrants further investigation.
    We Are Not Alone
    And as we engage in that investigation, maybe we'll discover more than we bargained for. After all, if we owe our existence to life on other planets in our solar system, that makes a strong case for life outside it too. SETI astronomer Jill Tarter told io9 via email:
    I think that intelligent life here on Earth is a proof of concept that it could exist elsewhere, but we will not know unless we search systematically and exhaustively enough to accumulate sufficient information to justify significant null result. Remember the last sentence of the 1959 Cocconi and Morrison paper [published in Nature]: "The probability of success is difficult to estimate, but if we never search, the chance of success is zero."
    The search for life's origins on Earth could ultimately lead to the discovery of extraterrestrial life, too.
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    Default Re: Life - out there....

    So, here's what I think.

    Viruses are perhaps created bits of DNA/RNA sequences used by aliens to cause mutations in life form on other worlds - to cause them to mutate into say, copies of themselves.

    However, our human DNA (and perhaps that of animals) evolved to the point where our bodies FIGHT the mutant stuff and prevent a "take over".

    Wouldn't that be strange if that's what they were trying to do?

    Now WHY they would do something like that I am not quite sure. But who knows what goes through the minds of aliens?

    lol
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